Geography Notes in Hindi for UPSC Mains Examination

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General Studies-I

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.
  • History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of Women and Women’s Organization, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty and Developmental issues, Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of Globalization on Indian society.
  • Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism.
  • Salient features of World’s Physical Geography.
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography
GeomorphologyOrigin & Evolution of EarthInterior of the EarthDistribution of Continents & OceansPlate Tectonic TheoryDistribution of Earthquakes & VolcanoesRocks & Rock CycleGeomorphic Processes – Endogenic & ExogenicLandforms & their EvolutionOceanographyHydrological CycleSeafloor SpreadingOcean Floor ConfigurationTemperature & Salinity of OceansMovement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, CurrentsClimatologyEarth’s Atmosphere – Composition & StructureSolar Radiation, Heat Budget & TemperatureAtmospheric Circulation & Weather SystemsWorld Climate (examples)Soil GeographySoil & Soil ContentsProcess of Soil FormationSoil Forming FactorsTypes of Soils (examples)Soil Erosion & Conservation
Distribution of Key Natural Resources Across the World
Types of ResourcesOn the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaustability etc.Land ResourcesLand UtilisationLand Use PatternLand Degradation & ConservationForest ResourcesTypes & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.Causes of DepletionConservation of ForestsWater ResourcesMarine & FreshwaterWater Scarcity & Need For ConservationIntegrated Water Resources ManagementAgricultural ResourcesTypes of FarmingCropping PatternsContribution to Economy, Employment & OutputFood SecurityMineral & Energy ResourcesClassification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-FerrousOccurrence of MineralsConservation of MineralsClassification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-ConventionalOccurrence of Energy ResourcesConservation of Energy Resources
Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries
Classification of IndustriesLocation & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis ofRaw MaterialLabourMarketCapitalLandGrants & Financial IncentivesPowerTransportWaterCommunicationDistribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton TextileAgglomeration & Footloose Industries
Important Geophysical Phenomena
EarthquakesWhy Does Earth Shake?Earthquake WavesShadow ZoneTypes of EarthquakeMeasuring EarthquakeEffects of EarthquakeTsunamiWhat Causes TsunamiEffect of TsunamiMitigating the Impact of TsunamiVolcanoesTypes of VolcanoesWhat Causes Volcanoes?Volcanic LandformsCycloneTropical CyclonesAnti-CycloneExtra Tropical Cyclones
Geographical Features and their Location
Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical FeaturesExamples of Changing Geographicl Features – Mealting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.Impact of Changing Geographical Features


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